Tuesday, 26 March 2013

Verifying certificates with OpenSSL API

I'd like to allude to my previous article where I superficially described how certificates and PKI work, at least the way I understand it. This time I want it to be more tangible and hope to make it helpful to anyone grappling with a problem: how to verify certificates programatically with OpenSSL API.

Let me make it clear—don't use OpenSSL API, don't write any C/C++ or any other application. Check out ready to use tool, namely openssl verify command:

[kris@lenovo-x1 tmp]$ cat c1.pem c2.pem c3.pem > untrusted.pem
[kris@lenovo-x1 tmp]$ openssl verify \
  -CAfile ca.pem \
  -untrusted untrusted.pem \
  leaf.pem 
leaf.pem: OK
This should cover most common cases. Sure, one may say this is not a production tool and despite been written by experts (the authors of the OpenSSL package) it's hard to audit or it doesn't provide required features from the command line. Someone may not be able to deploy the executable onto the target system due to space limitations or may not be able to execute it from their program. There are plenty of reasons why someone would want to use OpenSSL API directly. But if you're not constrained by any of those reasons, just don't, unless you want to learn something or do it for dubious fun. And the OpenSSL API is not the most beautiful one. See this article on how botched SSL APIs make it easy to introduce vulnerabilities into applications.

I doubt you can get the ball rolling after reading the rather sloppy and incomplete documentation. Maybe it's a good starting point but sooner or later you'll be discontented. The way I learned how to use the API—and I believe it's the best way—is to read OpenSSL source code and maybe run the harder bits under the debugger. Certificate verification in particular is implemented in apps/verify.c. A good code cross-reference tool might be handy as well as any grep-ish approach will be hindered by wodge of preprocessor generated functions.

It's also interesting to see how C++11 features can be leveraged to deliver robust and nice to read code. Some developers slog through C in their applications as they feel they have to because OpenSSL is written in C. Sure, I appreciate OpenSSL itself is written in C as it's portable, but writing robust code in C is really hard and unpleasant. I wouldn't bother writing an example for this article in C at my leisure. I wouldn't even do it for money if there was no good reason for it. With C++11 on the other hand it's fun!

This is a rudimentary example and there are no classes and all that fancy stuff. I wanted to keep it dead simple. You may wonder why I bother checking all error codes and throw everywhere. Well, the reason is simple—I never know when I want to copy it (ehem, re-factor) into some utility, class, library or anything else in production code. I strongly believe that it's very important to start with a prototype (the simpler the better) to explore new areas and spot problems as soon as possible. But the sad thing is that quite often prototype code ends up in a final release, most notably because "if it works, don't touch it". I see nothing wrong in reusing prototype code that proved to work really well. But the caveat is to make it robust from the outset. So all this "small" things like checking error codes, deallocating those tiny bits and pieces may not matter now, but they might do in the future. And you don't want to go through the code scouring it and looking for these little nuisances. It's much easier to deal with the details as you write the "essential" code.

Enough preaching so let's do it, shall we? The source code is available as usual on GitHub here.

I want to declare some function return types with my beloved std::unique_ptr. As this is a very lightweight smart pointer, the pointee deleter is part of its type. This is different when compared to std::shared_ptr which uses type erasure for the deleter. As I don't care too much about the performance here, I want to do the same for my std::unique_ptr:

template<class T>
using scoped_ptr = std::unique_ptr<T, std::function<void (T *const)>>;
And I also reuse a teensy make_scoped() utility from one of the previous articles. It's noteworthy to say that this might be considered as std::unique_ptr abuse as it just happens that objects returned by OpenSSL API are literary pointers. Had they been some sort of handles only, I wouldn't have used std::unique_ptr here. And I named these utilities scoped_ptr and make_scoped to make them different from proposed std::make_unique().

Before you can call X509_verify_cert(), you need to prepare certificate store context which comprises ultimately trusted root certificate, untrusted intermediate certificates and the leaf certificate. This is all done in the main() function and is fairly easy to follow. Quite challenging is providing the actual error message. In this example I limited it to loading some rather succinct message from the OpenSSL library and extracting certificate expiry dates as I've found it quite common verification failure reason (dealing with a lot of generated short-term test certificates). See the formidable print_verification_failure_msg(). Basically OpenSSL provides verification algorithm but you could provide your own. Believe me though—you don't want to do it. So here's a simplified sequence (please refer to the source code for detailed error handling):

// Let's create a certificate store for the root CA
const auto trusted =
  make_scoped (X509_STORE_new (), X509_STORE_free);

// The lookup method is owned by the store once created
// and added to the store
const auto lookup =
  X509_STORE_add_lookup (trusted.get (), X509_LOOKUP_file ());

// Load the root CA into the store
X509_LOOKUP_load_file (lookup, argv[1], X509_FILETYPE_PEM);

// Create a X509 store context required for the verification
const auto ctx =
  make_scoped (X509_STORE_CTX_new (), X509_STORE_CTX_free);

// Now our untrusted (intermediate) certificates (if any)
const auto untrusted =
  read_untrusted (argv + 2, argv + argc - 1);

// And our leaf certificate we want to verify
const auto cert =
  read_x509 (argv[argc - 1]);

// Initialize the context for the verifiacion
X509_STORE_CTX_init (
  ctx.get (), trusted.get (), cert.get (), untrusted.get ());

// Verify!
const int result = X509_verify_cert (ctx.get ());

To build and try the example I did the following on my Fedora 18 laptop:

[kris@lenovo-x1 kriscience]$ g++ -std=c++11 -O2 -DNDEBUG \
cert-verify.cpp -lssl -lcrypto -o /tmp/test
[kris@lenovo-x1 kriscience]$ !$ ca.pem c1.pem c2.pem c3.pem leaf.pem
Verification OK
This is very trivial example but it's a foothold for someone starting their adventure with OpenSSL API. A more representable application would use policy verification, time parameter and CRL checks. Maybe one day I'll present it here.

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